Un problema que afecta a muchos: el acceso a saneamiento | Malva Baskovich | TEDxTukuy

Un problema que afecta a muchos: el acceso a saneamiento | Malva Baskovich | TEDxTukuy


Translator: sofia Arango
Reviewer: Mel Alfaro Good morning to you all. To be honest, my morning didn’t start so well. If it hadn’t been for the few steps
between myself and my bathroom, of a warm shower, of my lime-scented soap, truthfully,
I would’ve never noticed that a wonderful moment
such as this was going to come. By all means,
that bathroom changed my mood. And my mood changed even more when I had the pleasure
of sitting on the toilet and, as it should be,
newspaper on hand, wait a few minutes
to fill soon after that relief, that weightlessness. To be frank, in my case,
shedding a few pounds. (Laughter) That, which sounds so funny and we’ve come to take for granted, is not so for half of the world, where there are 2600 million people without access to
basic sanitation services. Without a toilet bowl, without a private area where to perform one of the,
perhaps, most intimate of tasks
that we face as human beings. And this is not different in Peru. Where one third, has no access to those
basic sanitation services. Where there are 12 million people for whom having a bathroom
is an impossible dream. And that happens in a country that has had a steady growth
over the last 10 years. One that has reduced, over the same period,
poverty by half. One with medium rental costs. One that almost reaches
$7,000 annual GDP per capita One that feels proud of it’s history, of it’s cuisine, of it’s progress. Some may ask: Why then, if it’s such an important topic, is it not given
the importance it deserves? Sanitation doesn’t only
impact on our health. Sanitation has to do with the survival
of our boys and girls. So, then, why are we doing nothing
with regards to sanitation? Sanitation has
a fundamental impact, not only in our interaction with others, but as it relates to the topic of economy. Sanitation impacts on tourism, on education, on productivity and in the country’s competitivity A gram of human fesces have 10 million
viruses, 1 million baterias and a 100 parasite eggs. Those virus, bacterias and parasites are the responsible of a group of
diseases, like respiratory diseases, early death, skin diseases and a group of diarrhea related diseases
like dysentery and cholera. Even worse yet: this parasites won’t ever
allow that the physical and cognitive development
of the children be the optimum. Sanitation is extremely related to child
malnutrition and as you know, if a child doesn’t achieve
full development of their capacities and of their physical and cognitive
potential in their first five years, they will never achieve them. Sanitation kills, around the world, 1,8
million of people. Peru tends to more then a million cases of
diarrheic diseases per year. 5,000 children! 5,000 children die every day because of
this diseases. Those same children, in Peru, have between
10 to 12 diarrheas in a year. It cost to the State around USD 12 to tend
one of this diarrheas, lots of which end up in death. Sanitation also has an impact on the
environment. Is calculated that every year, around the
word, are poured into water sources about 200 million tons of human wastes. And a lot more tons of non-sanitized
waters. So sanitation is intimately linked withe the vicious circle of poverty. Sanitation depresses our souls, our productivity, our ability to thrive. For example: if schools don’t have sanitation, of
course, the rate of frequency on diarrheic
diseases in bigger. But is even bigger and there’s studies
that prove it, When there’s no separate environmet for
boys and girls, the rate of diarrheic infections increase, the absences from school increase, also the rate of drop-outs and desertion
increase, and that’s even more alarming for the girls, that have to suffer through menstruation
in this conditions. While an adult isn’t kill by a diarrhea, it does decreases its productive
capability. According to the UN, 10% of productive
days are lost each year due to diarrheal diseases. Yes, we want to sell the country as a
brand related to the experiential tourism to the adventure tourism, How are we going to do it if our
communities doesn’t have the basic sanitation services
to offer? We want to be competitive in terms of
agroexport. Of course we are! But we cannot be it, not when the Ica valley can’t compete with the valley of Napa in California. Because a single contaminated creek
is enough to not have access to the certification of
the whole valley. According to official data, Peru treats less than 20% of sewage
waters. Definitely, sanitation has a significant
impact on economy, they are very clear and real. According to studies by the World Bank, countries loses between 1% to 6% of their
GDP because of their lack of access to basic
sanitation services. According to the UN, each dollar that’s invested in sanitation
has a economic return of 9,10 USD. If the subject is so clear, why is sanitation the missing link in the development agendas, no only
of the governments, but also of the social organizations and
of the private sector? For several reasons. First of all: because it’s very unpleasant and you are surely listening to me with
a bit of resilience. It’s very unpleasant to talk about this
subjects. Who likes to talk about sewages, sewers, human wastes, of crap? Second: because even if sanitation impacts
on public matters, is, in essence, a private matter. It was to do with modesty, with the most basic and essential thing as
human beings. From my point of view, it is more
primitive than talking about sex. Third: because people that live without
access to sanitation, live in a context that overwhelms them. They have taken the land by the storm. With courage, bravery and persistance they have built they houses little by
little, day by day, but without a vision of a medium or a
long term plan. It’s built today, and wherever a room
was put, it’ll stay there. And because I don’t know where the
bathrooms is going to be Where do I put it? And then, some houses can have two, three
rooms, a second floor, but lacking a bathroom. Simply because there wasn’t a design that
included it. And that might be the explanation of why of the 3 million houses without access to
sanitation services in Peru, more than half are above the line of
poverty. They aren’t poor. What has been the experience of people
that has use a latrine for years? The latrine, in the mind of persons, and
in all of ours too, is the most horrendous place that can
exist. A place that stinks, that has flies, and
a place where you can fall… I wouldn’t go there for the world. Or neither of you. Better to do outside than inside! The latrine is a hotbed for contamination
and farther from the house the best. I will never forget a lady, of one of the studies we did, she told me a phrase that I will never
forget. She told me: “Miss, having a latrine is like having a
sign in the chest that says: ‘I’m poor'”. But that doesn’t mean this people doesn’t
dream with Of course they have dreams! Miss Jovita wants a bathroom! And she wants a bathroom because she has
the reference, the experience. Because she goes to a mall that has a
bathroom, because her sons go to a school that has a
bathroom, because in her husband’s work there’s a
bathroom. Because Peru has grown, gentlemen! Because we have reached out and the wellbeing has reached a lot of
people. But people wonder in those conditions, in that referal, What do I have to do to have a bathroom? I might want it, I might even have the resources, but I don’t have the tools. I don’t have the information, I don’t have anyone to tell me how to
put everything together. I don’t have time to go buy all this
pieces, I don’t have a design. In less word: nobody offers a complete
solution. The next question is: Why, if there is demand, there’s no offer? Why the private sector doesn’t see this as
a bussiness opportunity? Because there’s also barriers on the
private sector’s side. Because from the point of view of the
bussinessmen, that market for poor people is
uninteresting market. It’s a small market, scattered, rural. Besides, it is the market that the
Government should answer to. “I have my cheap, for poor people, linen.” “What else do you want me to do?” But Carmen doesn’t want that cheap linen. Carmen wants a cute bathroom, a colorful bathroom with flower stickers. A safe and modern bathroom, that make her and her family feel proud that she is part of the same society, that
she is equal to all of us. That’s Miss Adelita. A feisty woman that gave me, maybe the most interesting
testimony that I’ve ever heard. She told me: “Miss, I can die in peace now. Do you know why? Because, for the first time in 84 years,
I showered in a washroom. And because now I have something to give
to my children and grandchildren.” Or like Mr. Ismaiel, an agricultor from
La Mora, in Cajamarca, that after hearing me talk about the
importance of having a bathroom, he came back after a few minutes with a
wad of money, like a thousand of soles. And he told me: “What does this buys? What size of bathroom can I buy with
this? Because now, with this bathroom, my children and grandchildren that are in
Lima will want to come visit me.” Or like Sara, a makeup saleswoman of the human settlement of Pachacútec in
Ventanilla, who said to me: “You know what? I want to sell bathrooms. Because I do know how to convince my
neighbors to buy less cellphones and TVs and to make them buy bathrooms.” In face of all of this, we began to think: How can we match up the expectations and
necessities of the country with that very tangible demand that exists and besides, with the expectations of the
private sector, that wants rentability and that have
before them a real market, valued in 1,500 million USD? And we said: “Well, we’ve tried everything -because there is 7 years of perseverance
and trial and error behind this- Well, lets try it again but now only from
the private sector.” And we challenge the private sector to
promote a process and iniciative, and to develope a market that didn’t exist
at the base of the pyramid. Today, for the first time in Peru, 15 companies have signed a contract to carry out this proposal under the
same label for waters, They have worked for months to arrange a
bathroom in a combo, so that the piece of one producer fits the
piece of another, and like that, develop a commercialization
system unique for the 15 companies that allows to deliver this bathrooms
combos to the consumer’s door. They have negotiated with the finantial
system, in order to offer this bathroom with a 48
month’s installments and they have worked in what’s most
important in my point of view: a customer service that includes
information, technical advice and education. This work will soon see the light. You are going to know the brand, if not
by the end of the year, then by the following months of next
year. It has been a very difficult job. It has been the most difficult job
I’ve ever encounter because it has mean to gather a lot of
different wills. What will the outcome be? Will it be super succesful? Will it work and will we change the world? I don’t know. But what I do know is that we would have
set an antecedent that maybe other can replicate. That to cooperate will always be better
than competing, that innovation is possible in this
country; and that there’s a new rol for the private
sector beyond philantropy and social
responsability. From my point of view, we are in a point
of no return in the definition of new business models. The world need new forms to tend to our
problems. I hope this new initiative and this brand
will be the motor of change to impulse this revolution and that
reflexion that we should do every day concerning to the huge inequities that we
still have to confront. But, more important yet, I wish this remind us everyday that what’s
common for all of us, it’s not for other million of people in the world and in Peru. Thank you. (applause)

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